不 is used to negate most kinds of words. In some circumstances, like when talking about the past, we use the negator 沒, instead.
In order to negate most words, just add 不 right before. For example, take the following positive statement: 我 吃 冰淇淋 。 Which means, "I eat ice cream." Now, negate it by placing 不 before the verb 吃: 我 不 吃 冰淇淋 。 Which instead means, "I don't eat ice cream."
不 + verb
Note that we only use 沒 to negate the verb 有.
不 + adjective
不 + preposition
Adverbs are a bit different, but still logical. 不 usually comes after adverbs in a sentence, since you don’t generally negate adverbs. Note the position of the adverbs in the following sentences:
In this case, the adverb comes before the negator, since 不 is negating the verb. There’s no logical situation in which 今天 would themselves need be negated. However, a few adverbs can be negated, and in these situations 不 will come before them. Note the positions of the adverbs in the following sentences:
In some cases, the 不 can go on either side of the adverb, and the meaning will change:
verb + 不 + result
In Chinese, verbs often take on a verb-result format:
不 can be used to negate the ability to achieve the result by placing placing it the middle: