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Traditional Simplified

most often indicates possession, like “have” in English. It also often indicates existence.

Possession

subject +  + object
湯匙
Wǒ yǒu hěn duō tāngchí.
I have many spoons.
車輪
chē yǒu sì ge chēlún.
A vehicle has four wheels.
兒子
wǒ yǒu ge hěn shuài de érzi 。
I have a very handsome son.

Negation

Note that is always negated with , rather than .

湯匙
Wǒ méi yǒu hěn duō tāngchí.
I don't have many spoons.

Existence

can show the existence of an object in a place. Like saying, "There is . . . at place" in English; but in Chinese, the place comes first.

圖書館
túshūguǎn lǐ yǒu yī běn hěn jiù de shū.
There is a very old book in the library.
美國 中部 農產
Měiguó de zhōngbù yǒu hěn duō nóngchǎn.

Just like with places, this can also be used when talking about time, as in “There was . . . yesterday.”

禮拜 好玩 活動
Shàng ge lǐbài yǒu yī ge hěn hǎowán de huódòng.
昨天 我的 餅乾
Zuótiān yǒu rén lái wǒde jiā mài gěi wǒ bǐngqián.

Portions

(whole group) +  + (portion of group)

When comes before , the pairing emulates the "x out of y things" structure in English. But in Chinese, "y" (the whole group) comes first.

小偷
Zhè sì ge rén lǐ yǒu yī ge xiǎotōu.
One of these four people is a thief.
醫生 牙膏
Měi wǔ ge yīshēng lǐ yǒu sì ge shuō zhè pái yágāo zuì hǎo.
Four out of every five doctors says this brand of toothpaste is the best.

Adding measurements

  can also be used to connect a subject to various kinds of measurements like weight or length.

公斤
Rén nǎo yǒu yī diǎn sān gōngjīn zhòng.
The human brain weighs 1.3 kilograms.
公里 左右
Zhè tiáo lù yǒu sān bǎi gōnglǐ zuǒyòu.
This road is approximately 3 kilometers long.
Yú nǎo yǒu duō zhòng?
How heavy is a fish’s brain?

Comparing things

can be used to compare one thing to another.

那麼
Wǒ yǒu nǐ nàme gāo!
I have the same height as you!
你的 臉色 那麼 嚴重
Nǐ de liǎnsè méi yǒu tā nàme yánzhòng.
Your expression isn’t as stern as his.